Class 12 Board Level

Class 12 Board Level

Class 12 Board Level

Courses Information

This course is designed for those who is going to appear in the  (XII) Board examination specially focussing on the objective part  which is very much

For CBSE -
The board examinations for class 12th CBSE will be held from February to April. CBSE will be introducing 25% multiple-choice questions (MCQs) in all the subjects in board exam 2020. UPSILONX  Course is designed to cover the entire syllabus by NCERT board for CBSE 12th and is focused on bringing maximum performance from a child for the Final 12th CBSE boards. This course is prepared by subject- matter experts. Our courses consist of 60 test with more than 60 questions in each test.

 

Syllabus

BIOLOGY

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; outbreeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis - spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation Heredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in human being, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans -thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations; population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation Biodiversity - Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

PHYSICS

Unit I: Electrostatics

Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two-point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit II: Current Electricity

Chapter–3: Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge(qualitative ideas only) Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for 14 comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell(qualitative ideas only)

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 16 Periods

Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.    

Chapter–7: Alternating Current Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics

Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Ray Optics: Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. 16 Experimental study of photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei

Chapter–12: Atoms Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

 Chapter–13: Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell.

CHEMISTRY

Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects.

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions).

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation.

Unit VII:p-Block Elements

Group -15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid.

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT.

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes.

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions. Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Amines

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

  

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration

Proteins -Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

MATHEMATICS

Unit-I: Relations and Functions

  • Relations and Functions
  • Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions.
  • Inverse Trigonometric Functions
  • Definition, range, domain, principal value branch.

Unit-II: Algebra

  • Matrices
  • Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices, Invertible matrices; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
  • Determinants
  • Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit-III: Calculus

  • Continuity and Differentiability
  • Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives.
  • Applications of Derivatives
  • Applications of derivatives: increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations).
  • Integrals
  • Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
  • Applications of the Integrals
  • Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, parabolas; area of circles /ellipses (in standard form only) (the region should be clearly identifiable).
  • Differential Equations
  • Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree of the types.

Unit-IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

  • Vectors 
  • Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors.
  • Three - dimensional Geometry
  • Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.

Unit-V: Linear Programming

  • Linear Programming
  • Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems. graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

Unit-VI: Probability

  • Probability
  • Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution.

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